Glossary
A - COpen

absorbent products: Pads and garments, disposable or reusable, worn to absorb leaked urine. Absorbent products include shields, undergarment pads, combination pad-pant systems, diaper-like garments, and bed pads.

Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT): An androgen is a male hormone. Prostate cancer growth is dependent on or stimulated by androgens, particularly testosterone. By depriving the cancer cells of the testosterone they need for growth, tumors regress in size and cellular activity. Side effects of ADT include gynecomastia (the enlargement of breast tissue), hot flushes, and loss of libido (desire to have sex). Long term hormonal therapy is associated with the loss of muscle mass, osteoporosis and malaise (loss of energy).

anemia: A condition in which the blood is deficient in red blood cells, in hemoglobin, or in total volume.

artificial urinary sphincter (AUS): Severe cases of incontinence may require the implantation of a device known as an artificial urinary sphincter. People who might benefit from this treatment include those who are incontinent after surgery for prostate cancer, stress incontinence, trauma victims and people with congenital defects in the urinary system. The artificial sphincter has three components.   These include a pump, balloon reservoir, and a cuff that encircles the urethra which prevents urine from leaking. The cuff is connected to the pump, which is surgically implanted in the scrotum. The pump can be activated (usually by squeezing or pressing a button) to deflate the cuff and permit the bladder to empty. After a brief interval, the cuff refills and the urethra is closed. Because the artificial sphincter is an implant, it is subject to the risks common to implants such as infection, erosion (breaking down of tissue) and mechanical malfunction. With appropriate pre-surgical evaluation, operative techniques and postoperative follow-up, many problems can be avoided and incontinent patients can experience an improved quality of life.

assisted reproductive technologies (ART): The new forms of fertility treatment incorporate many methods of sperm retrieval and preparation. Once the sperm have been processed to ensure optimal fertilizing potential, they can be used in a variety of procedures to aid the process of conception. These procedures include artificial insemination (AI), in vitro fertilization (IVF), and sperm microinjection techniques (ICSI).

autologous: Derived from the same individual.

behavioral techniques: Different methods to help “retrain” the bladder and get rid of the urgency to urinate. (see biofeedback, bladder training, electrical stimulation, habit training, pelvic muscle exercises, prompted voiding).

benign prostatic hyperplasia: A non malignant condition in which the prostate becomes enlarged with age.

benign tumor: A tumor or growth that is not cancerous

bilateral: A term describing a condition that affects both sides of the body or paired organs such as kidneys.

biofeedback: A procedure that uses electrodes to help people gain awareness and control of their pelvic muscles.

bladder: A hollow muscular balloon shaped organ that stores urine.

bladder training: A behavioral technique that teaches the patient to resist or inhibit the urge to urinate, and to urinate according to a schedule rather than urinating at the urge.

brachytherapy: Brachytherapy is a form of Radiation treatment which involves the placement of tiny radioactive pellets into the Prostate gland. By utilizing ultrasound imaging to accurately place the seeds, radiation damage to surrounding tissues is minimized. Approximately 13,500-16,000 rads of radiation energy is delivered to the Prostate. This procedure is performed as an outpatient or an overnight stay.

Brachytherapy is a curative treatment for prostate cancer in selected patients.

catheter: A tube passed into the body for draining or injecting fluids or medication. It may be made of silicone, rubber, glass, metal, or plastic. The most commonly used catheter is the urethral catheter which drains the bladder.

catheterization: Insertion of a slender tube through the urethra or through the anterior abdominal wall into the bladder, urinary reservoir, or urinary conduit to allow urine drainage.

chemolysis: Certain types of kidney stones can be dissolved by oral medications.   This is an uncommon scenario, most commonly used for dissolving pure uric acid stones.

colon: The large intestine.

corpora cavernosa: Two chambers in the penis which run the length of the organ and are filled with spongy tissue. Blood flows in and fills the open spaces in the spongy tissue to create an erection.

creatinine: A waste product that is filtered from the blood by the kidneys and expelled in urine. Levels of creatinine can be measured in the blood to determine how well the kidneys are functioning.

cryotherapy: Cryotherapy is a rarely used treatment for prostate cancer by freezing the cancer. Probes are placed in the prostate under anaesthesia. The probes are then frozen which kills the prostatic cells.

cystocele: A herniation of the bladder into the vagina

cyst: A cavity filled with either fluid in any organ or tissue.   Most cysts are harmless. Some complicated cysts in the kidney can be associated with malignancy.

cystectomy: Surgical removal of the bladder.

cystoscopy: A cystoscopy involves the insertion of a telescope into the bladder via the urethra to determine abnormalities in the bladder and lower urinary tract.

D - KOpen

detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia (DSD): Damage to the nervous system can create a lack of coordination between the bladder and the external sphincter muscle, which is the muscle that controls the emptying of the bladder. As a result the bladder cannot empty completely resulting in a buildup of Bladder pressure. DSD is a combination of these two factors and may result in severe urinary tract damage and incontinence.

diabetes mellitus: Diabetes is a medical condition in which the body cannot properly store or use glucose (sugar), the body’s main source of energy.

diuretic: A drug that increases the production of urine, removing excess water from the body. Diuretics are used in treating high blood pressure and fluid retention

ejaculation: Ejection of semen during male orgasm.

ejaculation, retrograde: The discharge of semen backwards into the bladder rather than through the urethra.

electrohydraulic lithotripsy (EHL): This technique applies a probe to break up small kidney or ureteric stones with shock waves generated by electricity. The physician positions the tip of the probe 1 mm from the stone through a ureteroscope. Then, by application of an electrically generated hydraulic shock wave, the stone is broken into small fragments. These can be passed by the patient or removed.   EHL is used rarely now, being superceded by laser and ballistic probes.

enterocele: Herniation of small bowel into the vagina

estrogen (oestrogen): Hormones responsible for the development of female sex characteristics; produced by the ovary.

external beam radiation therapy: External Beam Radiation is radiation treatment for cancer, most commonly bladder and prostate cancer. The Radiation is generated outside and passes through the body to the organ. There can be some radiation effect on surrounding tissues.

extra corporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL): Extra corporeal shockwave lithotripsy breaks kidney and ureteric stones into small particles by the application of shockwaves generated outside the body which are focused on the stones.   The shockwave passes through the body. The stone particles created pass naturally in the urine.

habit training: A behavioral technique that calls for scheduled toileting at regular intervals on a planned basis. Unlike bladder training, there is no systematic effort to motivate the patient to delay voiding and resist urge.

hydrocele: A painless swelling of the scrotum, caused by a collection of fluid around the testicle; hydrocele commonly occur in middle-aged men, almost always benign.

hypermobility: A condition characterized in which the pelvic floor muscles can no longer provide the necessary support to the urethra and bladder neck. As a result, the bladder neck drops when any downward pressure is applied causing involuntary urine leakage. This condition is the most common cause of stress urinary incontinence.

hyperplasia: Excessive growth of normal cells of an organ.

insemination: The placement of semen into a woman’s uterus, cervix, or vagina.

InterStim continence control therapy: A therapy used in treating urge incontinence. A device, about the size of a pacemaker, that is implanted into the sacral nerves of the lower spine, where it delivers electrical impulses that help regulate bladder function.

intrinsic sphincter deficiency (ISD): Weakening of the urethra sphincter muscles. As a result of this weakening the sphincter does not function normally regardless of the position of the bladder neck or urethra. This condition is a common cause of stress urinary incontinence.

irritable bladder: Involuntary contractions of muscles in the bladder, which can cause urgent desire to void or a loss of the control of urination.

kegel exercises: Exercises is to strengthen the muscles of the pelvic floor, which leads to more control and prevents leakage.

kidney: One of a pair of organs located at the back of the abdominal cavity. Kidneys make urine through blood filtration.

kidney stone: A “stone” is composed of crystals, matrix and substances excreted in the urine that form in the kidneys. There are many types of kidney stones.

L - ROpen

laparoscopy (laparoscope):  Laparoscopy involves the insertion of a telescope to visualize internal organs in the abdomen through a small skin incision. Generally less invasive than traditional open surgery.

laparoscopic lymph node dissection: Telescopic removal of the lymph nodes in the pelvic cavity, usually for the treatment of prostate or bladder cancer.

laparoscopic prostatectomy: Telescopic removal of the entire prostate gland via small incisions in the abdomen for prostate cancer.

laparoscopic nephrectomy: Removal of a kidney through small incisions in the abdomen or flank.

lithotripsy: A procedure done to break up kidney, ureteric or bladder stones. The stones can be physically crushed with mechanical instruments or broken by shock waves, which are either applied directly to the stone by probes or through the body wall (ESWL).

menopause: The period that marks the permanent cessation of menstrual activity, usually occurring between the ages of 40 and 58.

metastasis: The spread of a cancerous tumor to another part of the body from the organ in which it originates.

mixed incontinence: Having both stress and urge incontinence.  Urge incontinence is caused by bladder over activity or overflow, stress incontinence results in urine loss as a result of increased abdominal pressure.

nephrectomy: Removal of an entire kidney.

open nephrolithotomy: Now rarely performed due to the newer, less invasive techniques, open nephrolithotomy was the traditional surgical removal of kidney stones through a large (15 – 20 cm) body wall incision.

orchidectomy: The surgical removal of a testicle.

orchitis: Inflammation of a testicle.

overactive bladder: A condition characterized by involuntary bladder muscle contractions during the bladder filling phase which the patient cannot suppress.

overflow Urinary Incontinence: Leakage of small amounts of urine from a bladder that is always full. Similar to a full dam overflowing if it continues to be filled.

percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL): Percutaneous means “though the skin.” In PCNL, the urologist makes a 1-centimeter incision in the patient’s back, through which a telescope (nephroscope) is passed directly into the kidney and if necessary, the ureter. Smaller stones may be manually extracted, larger ones may need to be broken before they can be extracted.

PCNL: “Mini Perc”, the PCNL procedure for kidney stones using smaller fine instruments with less side effects and hospital stay.

Pelvic floor muscle exercises: Pelvic muscle exercises are intended to improve pelvic muscle tone and prevent leakage for sufferers of Stress Urinary Incontinence.

periurethral bulking injections: A surgical procedure in which injected implants are used to “bulk up” the area around the neck of the bladder, to resist increases in abdominal pressure and prevent urinary leakage.

post-void residual (PVR) volume: A diagnostic test which measures how much urine remains in the bladder after urination. PVR volume is usually measured by catheterization or pelvic ultrasound.

prostate: A muscular, walnut-sized gland that surrounds the urethra just below the bladder in men. It secretes seminal fluid, a milky substance that combines with sperm (produced in the testicles) to form semen.

prostatectomy: Surgical removal of part or all of the prostate.

suprapubic / retropubic prostatectomy: This involves the removal of internal benign obstructing prostatic tissue through a supra-pubic incision ( a cut below the belly button ). The Prostate is not totally removed. Suprapubic Prostatectomy requires incising the bladder to remove the obstructing tissue while a Retropubic approach involves incising the Prostatic capsule to remove the obstructing tissue. Both approaches utilize an abdominal incision. The suprapubic operation is also known as the Transvesical or Freyer operation and retropubic, the Millin prostatectomy.

(Open) radical retropubic prostatectomy: Removal of the entire prostate through an abdominal incision. ORP is the traditional operation for prostate cancer and is usually combined with a pelvic lymph node dissection.

perineal prostatectomy: Total removal of the prostate for cancer. A Perineal incision between the scrotum and the anus is utilized. The advantages are less blood loss and decreased recovery time compared to an ORP.

laparoscopic prostatectomy: Total removal of the prostate gland for cancer via small incisions in the abdomen.

Robotically assisted Radical Laparoscopic Prostatectomy (da Vinci prostatectomy, Robotic Prostatectomy or RALP): A radical prostatectomy in which the surgeon is remove from the patient operating through laparoscopic parts. The surgeon controls the surgical instruments using a computerized transmission system.

prostatic stent: A prostatic stent is a wire device that expands after placement in the prostatic urethra, holding the urethra open allowing for easier urination.

prostatitis: Inflammation of the prostate, infective or non infective.

pubovaginal sling: A surgical procedure in which an artificial or cadaveric strip of material is placed under the bladder neck to support and immobilize it. This technique improves sphincter function and decreases bladder neck movement, improving continence. It is generally used to treat stress urinary incontinence (SUI).

pyelonephritis: Inflammation of the kidney, usually due to a bacterial infection.

pyuria: The presence of pus in the urine; usually an indication of kidney or urinary tract infection, but can also be associated with calculi, cancer and non infective bladder and kidney conditions.

rectocele: A herniation of rectum into vagina

S - ZOpen

sexually transmitted disease (STD): Infections that are spread through sexual intercourse or genital contact.

sling procedures: Surgical methods for treating stress urinary incontinence (SUI) involving the placement of a sling, made from autologous or synthetic material. The sling is anchored to retropubic and/or abdominal structures, to prevent the bladder outlet descending with increased abdominal pressure.

sphincter: A ring of muscle fibers around an organ in the body which control the passage of substances out of the organ.

sphincter artificial: A surgically implanted device which comprises the urethra to treat severe SUI.

stress urinary incontinence SUI: Urinary Incontinence that is precipitated by increased intra abdominal pressure. Such events include laughing, sneezing, coughing or lifting heavy objects.

testosterone: The sex hormone that stimulates development of male sex characteristics and bone and muscle growth; produced by the testicles and regulated by the pituitary gland in the brain.

TUMT (transurethral microwave thermotherapy): Uncommonly used treated of BPH and obstruction using microwaves.

TUNA (transurethral needle ablation): In TUNA, electrodes are placed into prostate tissue through a cystoscope. The tissue between the needles is destroyed by applying heath or thermal energy. This is a rarely used treatment for BPH and obstruction.

TURP (transurethral resection of the prostate): A surgical telescope is used to remove the inside of the prostate (urethra) creating a larger channel, unobstructing the bladder. This is the “gold standard” for the treatment of BPH and obstruction.

ultrasonic lithotripsy:  An “ultrasound” probe is a rigid hollow metal probe. The probe vibrates as a result of piezo-electric crystals which generate ultrasonic waves which vibrate the outer end of the probe.   The probe breaks stones atraumatically like a “jack hammer”

underactive bladder: A condition characterized by a bladder contraction of inadequate magnitude and/or duration to effect bladder emptying in a normal timespan.   This condition can be caused by drugs, fecal impaction, neurologic conditions such as Diabetic neuropathy, low spinal cord injury or as a result of radical pelvic surgery.   It also can result from a weakening of the detrusor muscle from vitamin B12 deficiency or idiopathic causes. Bladder underactivity may cause over distension of the bladder, resulting in overflow incontinence (see overflow incontinence).

ureteroscopy: A flexible or rigid fiberoptic instrument resembling a long thin telescope is inserted through the urethra and bladder to visualize the inside of the ureter. Often used for removal of kidney stones to diagnose ureteric lesions or bleeding.

urge UI: The involuntary loss of urine associated with a sudden and strong urge to void (urgency).

urge/urgency: A strong desire to void.

urinalysis: A group of physical and chemical tests done on a sample of urine to check for various disorders, including those of the kidneys and urinary tract.

urinary incontinence (UI): Involuntary loss of urine sufficient to be a problem. There are several types of Ul, but all are characterized by an inability to restrain voiding.

urinary tract infections (UTIs): UTIs are caused by bacteria that invade the urinary system and multiply, leading to an infection.

urodynamic tests: Diagnostic tests to examine the bladder and urethral sphincter function, related to flow, pressure and continence.

urolift: a minimally invasive treatment for prostatic obstruction from BPH. The obstructing loves of the prostate are compressed by implantable prostatic retractors that are inserted through a cystoscope to open the prostatic urethral outlet.

varicocelectomy: The surgical division of a varicocele.

varicocele embolization: An outpatient Radiological procedure in which the varicocele is occluded by means of a balloon catheter (flexible tube with a tiny detachable balloon) passed from the groin using x-ray control, to deploy steel coils, and/or sclerosing (vessel-hardening) solution to obstruct the varicosed veins.

vasoepididymostomy: A microsurgical operation that re-attaches the epididymis to the vas deferens.

vasovasostomy: Vasovasostomy is a vasectomy reversal, the re-connection of the severed ends of the vas deferens restoring the flow of sperm through the vas deferens following a previous vasectomy.

vaportrode: A type of cautery electrode that vaporizes Prostatic tissue. This creates a larger prostatic channel which makes urination easier.

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